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To your knowledge, do the Gospels ever reference zoe aidios as well as zoe ainios? If so, one might be able to understand both ainios punishment as well as ainios life as a purgative period before the timeless, absolute life with God beyond the horizon of the eschaton—ainios would stand as a term of transformation in both cases. But this is obviously rather speculative. On this topic of transformation, I think that approaching the ainios this way may also allow us to see that ainios punishment, whatever it may be, is not an end state or a result, but rather itself a continuation of the purgation of our incompleteness that is, sinfulness that begins, but does not end, within biological life.

You seem to be getting at this point with your distinction between retribution on the one hand and chastisement on the other. If I reject God in this life, refusing to provide assistance to others, what good does it do to punish me in the next? And even if I could be purified and corrected, what good works could I do in the next life that would bear fruit and allow God to transform me?

But what words could be used to describe life in the next without God? I am not a scholar, and my theology has been shaped by my protestant upbringing. Any light, guidance, correction is greatly appreciated. I think the point not stated directly here is that our mental concept of a burning hell is a bit misguided and has more to do with a bit of Dante and Jonathan Edwards than it does the Apostolic notion. Like Liked by 2 people. If Jesus descended unto hell, those he encounters there it would seem to me to be in the same position as the thief on the cross: What can possibly be the purpose and motivation of an undetermined process of burning-up without change?

It would write hell and wrath into the eternal purposes and moral character of God. Reblogged this on Kilen's Spot and commented: Thanks for the info. I know that the usage goes back at least as far as the Emperor Justinian. Searching for Our Human Face: KJV And these will depart into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.

RSV And these shall go away to punishment age-during, but the righteous to life age-during. YLT And these shall be coming away into chastening eonian, yet the just into life eonian. With respect to New Testament usage they conclude: Hart advances a lexical analysis similar to that of Konstan and Ramelli: Konstan and Ramelli elaborate: Christopher Marshall insists that we may not deduce the eternality of gehenna from the eternality of the Kingdom: Facebook Google Reddit Twitter Print.

This entry was posted in Bible , Eschatology. Aidan, Thank you for putting this together!. Fr Aidan Kimel says: My proposal is a cop-out. My favorite kind of Eclectic Orthodoxy post! Great job on your analysis. Does anyone read the Concordant New Testament regularly? Thanks for the great post. Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: Fr Aidan Kimel on Eschatological Transubstantiat….

The agreements affirmed by the dialogue emerged from a shared search. The agreements do not represent a compromise between opposing views, nor do the statements ignore complex doctrinal or confessional concerns. The members of the dialogue recognize that they do not speak officially for their respective churches. They offer their work as diligent scholars and conscientious servants of the churches. They do so with the desire that the emerging agreements may contribute in fruitful ways to the ecumenical endeavor now and in the years to come.

We hope that this statement may serve a salutary catechetical function within our churches. The findings of the dialogue may be a resource for study among clergy as well as throughout the parishes and congregations. This report also may assist individuals who provide pastoral care to the sick and dying. During the five years of discussion in Round XI, we experienced two deeply poignant events. Two of the original members of the U. Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue were entrusted into the loving arms of their Creator and Redeemer. Tavard died on August 13, , and Dr. Reumann on June 6, Throughout their years of service on the dialogue, they made monumental contributions to all of the dialogue's ten statements.

They also offered early contributions to what emerged as the text of Round XI. For all the conscientious scholarly work demonstrated by each member of this dialogue, we express our gratitude as we present this report to our churches. Sklba, co-chair The Rev. An ecumenically historic moment transpired in an old church at Augsburg, Germany, on October 31, In the Church of St.

Anna, which dates from , official representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the member churches of the Lutheran World Federation signed the "Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. Their signatures attested to the official reception in our churches of the fruit of years of ecumenical dialogue on the topic of justification, one of the central issues of contention in the Lutheran Reformation of the sixteenth century. That solemn ceremony marked a "decisive step forward on the way to overcoming the division of the church.

The consensus expressed in the "Joint Declaration" is assumed in this report of the eleventh round of the U. The findings, statements of consensus, and even expressions of certain divergent convictions related to "The Hope of Eternal Life" are built upon what Lutherans and Catholics confessed together in the "Joint Declaration" in The method of the "Joint Declaration" is reflected in this report. Lutheran-Catholic differences are not denied, but those differences are placed in the context of an extensive consensus in faith and practice.

Seen in the light of that consensus, the remaining differences need not stand in the way of communion between our churches. Lutherans and Roman Catholics in the United States have engaged in ongoing, substantive dialogue for almost half a century. Beginning in , this official dialogue addressed doctrines and issues of great importance for our churches. Acknowledged have been points of agreement and convergence.

Addressed, too, have been matters that have separated our churches since the sixteenth century. The summaries of findings and joint or common statements — accompanied occasionally by supporting studies — have contributed significantly to wider ecumenical discussion and fostered greater mutual understanding between our churches. This round of our dialogue has taken up a cluster of themes that remained for further discussion after our earlier discussions and following the reception of the "Joint Declaration. Further, the faithful in both churches affirm that death does not break the time-transcending communion of the church.

The justified in this life are one in Christ with those who have died in Christ. Yet the members of the dialogue pondered how our respective traditions have spoken of the transformation of the faithful to eschatological perfection. We probed the meaning of prayers for the dead. We wrestled with descriptions of the contemporary character of indulgences in Roman Catholic practice, especially in the light of the "Joint Declaration. The "Joint Declaration" affirms that the "Lutheran churches and the Roman Catholic Church will continue to strive together to deepen this common understanding of justification and to make it bear fruit in the life and teaching of the churches.

Contemporary cultural attitudes toward death are ambivalent at best. The Pew U. Religious Landscape Survey found that almost three-quarters of Americans say they believe in life after death. Even among those the survey identified as religiously unaffiliated, almost half agreed with such belief.

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Christian faith hinges on the belief that death is not the end of life for the individual, for humanity, or the universe. For every Christian, "to live is Christ, and to die is gain" Phil. Death is not the last word, for "death has been swallowed up in victory" 1 Cor. This hope is not only for ourselves, but for all things: In the midst of our culture's mixture of messages on death and the future, the gospel proclaims that life is the destiny of humanity and of the world. This hope is the common heritage of Christians. Disagreements on the Christian hope of eternal life have not touched the core of our common confession.

Christians need to make that confession together before the world with confidence and joy. Members of this dialogue desire that our work may contribute not only to the ongoing reconciliation of our Lutheran and Catholic traditions, but also to the proclamation of that message of hope. Life does not end in death. God in Christ offers everyone the hope of eternal life. Our work is presented in three chapters. Chapter Two describes the common convictions that shape the hope of both Catholics and Lutherans. The text takes up a series of individual topic, death and intermediate states i.

In each case, biblical, doctrinal, and theological material is surveyed and the heart of our common convictions stated. Even in a statement as extensive as this one, all aspects of all topics cannot be addressed. We have focused on those most important for Catholic-Lutheran relations. Chapter Three takes up the two most important Lutheran-Catholic controversies over last things: Again, biblical and doctrinal material is surveyed and the controversy analyzed.

These controversies take on a new appearance when seen against the background of our common hope and in the light of developments in our understandings of the communion of saints and in our liturgies. In each case, we find that our remaining differences, while not to be denied, need not in themselves block communion between us. The final chapter affirms our common hope of eternal life. Catholics and Lutherans are united not only by "one Lord, one faith, one baptism" Eph.

Memo to those seeking to live for ever: eternal life would be deathly dull

We live "in the hope of eternal life that God, who never lies, promised before the ages began" Tit. This hope is not peripheral within the Christian life, but at its center: Our shared hope is not vague or uncertain, for it focuses on Jesus Christ. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive" 1 Cor. Christ "abolished death, brought life and immortality to light" 2 Tim.

Christ is not simply the reason we hope; he is the content of our hope. Our hope parallels Paul's desire "to be with Christ" Phil. Jesus is not only the "first-born of the dead" Col. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live" Jn. We cannot know the details of this future: Nevertheless, we know that Jesus is our future. Our shared Scripture provides numerous images for the hope of eternal life. Eternal life can be described as life in the kingdom of God Mk. These diverse images are brought into focus by their relation to God's act in Christ, an action that has already reached a kind of fulfillment in the death and resurrection of Christ and the pouring out of the Spirit, but which awaits its consummation in the new heaven and new earth Rev.

Catholics and Lutherans alike witness in worship to our common hope. Both Lutherans and Catholics proclaim in the celebration of the Eucharist: Hope is particularly expressed in our funeral liturgies. Lutherans pray, "Give courage and faith to all who mourn, and a sure and certain hope in your loving care. Strengthen our hope so that we may live in the expectation of your Son's coming. This hope of eternal life was not a primary focus of controversy between Lutherans and Catholics during the Reformation.

For the most part, the understanding of last things that had developed in western theology during the patristic and medieval periods was received by Lutherans without fundamental change. Controversy arose on matters of eschatology when Lutherans believed that some Catholic teaching or related practice e. In this chapter, we will present the heritage of hope that Catholics and Lutherans hold in common. There are variations between our two traditions in these areas, but they have rarely been held to be church-dividing. In the next chapter, we will look at those subjects in this area that have been more vigorously disputed between Catholics and Lutherans.

Because many of the topics considered here were not disputed at the time of the Reformation, neither the Catholic nor the Lutheran texts from the Reformation era give a full picture of the shared eschatological faith. The Catholic magisterial tradition includes, in addition to sixteenth century materials, both pre-Reformation statements 16 and a variety of rich post-Reformation expositions. Therefore, reference will be made to material from particular Lutheran churches, even though they have not received universal Lutheran acceptance.

An important background for this presentation is the JDDJ. There, Catholics and Lutherans together affirmed that "a consensus in basic truths of the doctrine of justification exists. We thus begin our discussions in confidence based on a shared foundation and context. What we hope for is a gift, which will be ours only through the grace of Christ. The agent who will bring that for which we hope is always God, active in Christ and the Holy Spirit.

Only God is the adequate foundation for a sure hope. The fact that it comes to us as a gift is actually part of hope. God is the foundation of hope: We will begin each topic with a discussion of the biblical material that is foundational for both our traditions, followed by a presentation of doctrinal material. The Bible constitutes both the ground for ecumenical agreement and a focus of continuing investigation and theological argument.

The use of Scripture involves a number of questions: How do we relate a reading of biblical texts in relation to their historical setting to a reading that takes the total canon as the primary context of interpretation? Just what is the composition of the canon? What is the hermeneutical significance of our common belief in divine inspiration? What authority resides in the church's tradition of interpretation?

What is the "literal sense" of a text and how does it relate to other possible senses? This dialogue's discussion of biblical texts seeks to illumine the scriptural foundations and background of our churches' respective teachings on the hope of eternal life without completely settling these hermeneutical questions.

Sometimes our churches have drawn different conclusions from the same biblical texts, e. The most immediate and empirically certain of last things is physical death.

As the Wisdom literature of the Old Testament emphasizes, death comes alike to all, rich and poor, wise and foolish. For Christians, however, death is never simply a natural event. Death is a consequence of sin. Central to the Christian message of hope is the conviction that death is not final: O death, where is thy sting? In God's Kingdom, "death shall be no more" Rev. What happens in the death of a human being? Is death the annihilation of the entire self? Does some aspect or part of the person continue to exist?

If so, how and on what basis? Herein lies the question of "intermediate states": What is the status of the self between death and resurrection? This question was not a focus of controversy during the sixteenth century, although a few Lutheran theologians most notably, Luther were willing to entertain possibilities excluded by Catholic teaching. More recently, the question of intermediate states has been debated within each of our traditions.

How these questions are answered affects the discussion of other topics, e. The early books of the Old Testament use a variety of terms to speak about the state of the dead, e.

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As Judaism developed during the Second Temple period, descriptions of the state of the dead became more detailed. With the Hellenization of Judaism it becomes possible to speak of the souls of the dead as having an existence beyond death that is one of peace, purity, and immortality e. We see this too in Christian eschatological discourse e. Although Paul does not use the term "soul" explicitly to indicate the intermediate state, he recognizes the ongoing existence of the self between death and resurrection.

He describes death as a putting off of the physical body until God gives a new body in the resurrection 1 Cor. He likens the state of death to being a naked seed awaiting a body that God shall give it 1 Cor. While Paul's description of the state of the Christian dead is vague, it is clear that he regards them as "in Christ" 1 Thess. Therefore, Paul speaks of death in Christ as something to be welcomed rather than feared: Some New Testament texts are less clear on the question of the state of the dead, but should be cited here.

In Jewish tradition Paradise was sometimes used to refer to the interim place for the soul before resurrection and such may be Jesus' intention, but Paradise also could be used for the age to come after the resurrection. Commentators disagree on whether the two men are thought to be in an interim state or in their final stations. This may suggest that these righteous dead were in a kind of interim state before the coming of Christ, but we have few details. Other New Testament texts sometimes have been used in discussions of the state of the dead in connection with Jesus' descent into the realm of the dead 1 Pet.

Biblical scholars in recent decades have denied that these texts refer to the descent of Jesus into the realm of the dead and therefore the texts do not shed light on the question of the state of the dead. In summary we may say that throughout the New Testament there is evidence for belief in an intermediate state of the dead before the resurrection, but some of the details about that state remain a mystery. Scripture is clear, however, that the self 24 does not cease at death. Together, Lutherans and Catholics affirm that Scripture teaches the ongoing existence of the self between death and resurrection.

While some texts use the word "soul" to refer to this existence, a term that has been of great importance to both of our traditions, we acknowledge that the New Testament also can speak of this existence in other ways, which accounts for some variety of description in later tradition. Since the New Testament authors rarely speak of the intermediate state in detail, we should avoid claiming too great a certainty about our knowledge of the state of the dead on the basis of biblical evidence.

The earliest Christians spoke in various ways about what follows death. Some said that departed souls sleep in Sheol, where they sense only faintly the fate to be theirs after the resurrection and their judgment by Christ. Particular emphasis fell on the martyrs already in some way receiving their reward and rejoicing in the presence of Christ.

Of special importance for the development of depictions of intermediate states in Western theology were the writings of Augustine. He unambiguously states that the dead are conscious and already receive reward or punishment. During the time, however, which intervenes between man's death and the final resurrection, the souls remain in places specially reserved for them, according as each is deserving of rest or tribulation for the disposition he has made of his life in the flesh.

In the centuries following Augustine, such views became more precise. Most important for later theology were the Dialogues of Gregory the Great. The just cannot be separated from Christ, not even by death, he said. Yet, nothing is clearer than that the souls of the perfectly just are received into the kingdom of heaven as soon as they leave the body. This is attested by Truth himself when he says, "Where the body lies there the eagles will gather" Lk. For, wherever the Redeemer is bodily present, there the souls of the just are undoubtedly assembled.

Paul desires to have done with the present life, "and be with Christ" Phil. One who doubts not that Christ is in heaven will not deny that the soul of Paul is there, too. Conversely, the wicked are separated from God in death: Augustine, Gregory, and others continued to affirm a significant distinction between the joys of the dead prior to the resurrection and afterwards. The flesh in which they suffered pains and torments for the Lord will also share in their happiness.

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Just as they rejoice now only in their souls, they will then rejoice in the glory of their bodies as well. The development of scholasticism and, in particular, the adaptation of Aristotelian anthropology within Christian theology lent greater precision to medieval discussions of intermediate states, e. Greater precision brought with it, however, the possibility of more focused debate on the precise nature of the intermediate state.

During , Pope John XXII delivered a series of sermons in which he argued that the souls of the redeemed do not enjoy the face-to-face vision of God until the resurrection. These sermons were not binding teaching and were circulated with the request for response. An intense debate was set off, with John's views both supported and criticized. On his death bed in , John retracted his views. John's successor, Benedict XII, called together a group of theologians to discuss the question and in issued the constitution Benedictus Deus.

Moreover, by this vision and enjoyment the souls of those who have already died are truly blessed beatae and have eternal life and rest. No one in the debate denied the existence of an intermediate state; the question was the nature of the soul's participation in salvation during this intermediate state. When in the early 16th century a renewed Aristotelianism denied the immortality of the soul, the Fifth Lateran Council condemned "all those who assert that the intellectual soul is mortal.

The Lutheran Reformation had no distinctive teaching about death or intermediate states. The Lutheran Confessions simply assume that the souls of the dead exist and are in a blessed communion with Christ. No debate with Catholics or among Lutherans called for any discussion of the question and thus the Confessions do not address the nature of death or the way in which the soul survives death. In the debate over whether Christians can invoke prayers from the saints in heaven, the Confessions consistently accept as Christian teaching that the departed saints are in heaven, although we cannot know whether they are aware of our invocations of them.

Authoritative statements such as Benedictus Deus , however, ceased to carry weight with Lutheranism. Lutheran theology of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries continued to teach the survival of the soul beyond death and an immediate judgment, followed by acceptance into heaven or banishment to hell. Luther himself often took the biblical language of death as sleep more literally than his medieval predecessors, but was unsure about what such "sleep" might be and also on other occasions used the more common language of souls in heaven.

While, as will be noted, some twentieth-century interpreters insisted that Luther consciously rejected earlier notions of an intermediate state, much contemporary scholarship denies that Luther had a settled teaching on the question. Lutheran attention was thus not focused on the soul and its intermediate state, but on resurrection as the Christian's hope. In the course of the twentieth century, the classical soul-body anthropology shared by Lutherans, Catholics, and others came under critique.

On the one hand, this anthropology was criticized as unbiblical. The Bible, it was claimed, understood the self as essentially embodied in a way that excluded the ongoing existence of a disembodied soul. Biblical hope, it was argued, focused on bodily resurrection, not on a soul that survived death. In differing ways, both Lutheran and Catholic theologians sought to engage this two-pronged critique. Particularly important for the Lutheran discussion was the argument that Luther himself had rejected "the immortality of the soul," i. Some affirmed that beyond death, there is no time and the dead directly enter eternity.

A statement by Luther in his Genesis lectures is often cited and used as a theological springboard: For example, Werner Elert would only state: There is thus good reason to write on the grave: These theological discussions have been reflected in Lutheran church documents in various ways. On the one hand, the Finnish Catechism of approved by the church's General Synod repeats a traditional position regarding the soul surviving death. While the soul is not "by nature and by virtue of an inherent quality immortal," it is "not annihilated" in death; there is a "persistence of personal identity beyond death.

Man is thereby God's dialogue partner; he is addressed and he should answer. God does not revoke this relation to man — and so we are related to God in life and in death; we cannot escape him. Because the relation to God is indestructible, so is the human person. Lutheran discussions were paralleled by Catholic discussions, especially in the German language world.

Four themes were particularly important in the period prior to God is the 'last thing' of the creature. Gained, he is heaven; lost, he is hell; examining, he is judgment; purifying, he is purgatory. He it is to whom finite being dies and through whom it rises to him, in him.

This he is, however, as he presents himself to the world, that is, in his Son, Jesus Christ, who is the revelation of God and, therefore, the whole essence of the last things. The human spirit is by the Creator's word made to live in an enduring relation with God, with the great possibility of this relation becoming the eternal dialogue of mutual love.

Otto Karrer treated in the eschatological events and resurrection of the dead. General resurrection is not an event at the end of time. Resurrection occurs seriatim after Christ began the "era of resurrection. This conception marked the "Dutch Catechism" of , which said that beyond death there occurs "something like the resurrection of a new body. Gisbert Greshake proposed in a single-stage eschatology centered in a conception of "resurrection in death. God, the Lord of life Rom. If so, they could be integrated with his outlook, but only as a completion of what has already been occurring.

Greshake's ideas had their supporters 69 and their critics. In the edition of Eschatologie — Tod und ewiges Leben , Ratzinger offered his own, dialogical account of the human soul 71 and leveled a series of arguments against Greshake's proposal. The Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith, under Card. Of the Letter's seven main affirmations, no. After laying down its specific doctrinal reminders, the Letter admits that we do not have from Scripture "a proper picture" of life after death.

But Christians should hold firmly to two essential points, with which this section can conclude. On the one hand they must believe in the fundamental continuity, thanks to the power of the Holy Spirit, between our present life in Christ and the future life. We shall be with Christ and "we shall see God" 1 Jn. Our imagination may be incapable of reaching these heights, but our heart does so instinctively and completely.

Our churches affirm that death cannot destroy the communion with God of those redeemed and justified. The nature of the life that the justified departed share with God cannot be described in great detail and in this life remains a great mystery. Nevertheless, Lutherans and Catholics share the sure and certain hope that the justified departed are "in Christ" and enjoy the rest that belongs to those who have run the race.

As Hebrews reminds us, "Do not lose your confidence, which has a great reward" Heb. Our churches thus teach an ongoing personal existence beyond death, to which our divine Creator relates in saving love. This affirmation of a central aspect of our hope of eternal life is grounded in the witness of Scripture and the consensus of our authoritative traditions. This dialogue finds the understanding of a dialogical immortality that has been developed in both our traditions to be especially valuable.

Those with pastoral responsibilities in our churches would do well to draw on such accounts of life in Christ that transcends bodily death when they minister to those facing death and to the grieving left behind. Catholic doctrine on 1 the soul, 2 its immortality, and 3 the beatific vision prior to the general resurrection is more elaborated than what is found in the Lutheran Confessions on these subjects.

Since these teachings were not disputed in the Lutheran Reformation and not denied in the Confessions, this dialogue finds that, in the light of the convergence shown above, official teaching on these three subjects is not church-dividing. Christian hope has always been a hope for the reign of God's justice. Isaiah says of the Lord's servant: The restitution of justice, however, involves judgment, both on humanity as a whole and on individuals. What we have been and done will come to light.

All judgment, whether a yearly performance appraisal or the final judgment before the throne of God, inevitably carries with it anxiety. Hebrews speaks of "a fearful prospect of judgment" for those who "willfully persist in sin" Some artistic portrayals of the last judgment easily elicit fear.

For those who are in Christ, however, judgment, while sobering, is also hopeful for we know that the one who will judge us is also the one who has given up his life for us on the cross. Our judge is also our advocate 1 Jn.

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  • That God judges humans on the basis of their works in their earthly lives is an affirmation that we find throughout the Scriptures. From the beginning of their existence humans stand before God "naked," unable to hide from him the truth about their lives and their works Gen. In his law God makes clear that he punishes the guilty and rewards the righteous e. The prophets of Israel spoke of the coming day of the Lord, on which God would execute judgment against sinners Isa.

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    The New Testament teaching of salvation through faith in Jesus Christ puts the matter of judgment in a new light, but it does not undermine the Scriptural affirmation of a final judgment. On the contrary, the New Testament consistently underlines the seriousness with which the faithful must face a final accounting of their lives before God. According to the synoptic gospels Jesus called his closest disciples to commit their lives fully to him, and he did so in such a way that ultimate things were seen to be at stake in their decision.

    Confession or denial of Jesus before others is said to determine one's own judgment before God Mt. Moreover, according to the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus taught that humans will be judged for the deeds that they have done, with corresponding rewards and punishments Mt. We are admonished to live our lives knowing that God will judge us as we have judged others Mt. While the overwhelming emphasis in the Gospel of John is on faith in Jesus Christ as the "work" of the Christian par excellence Jn.

    The apostle Paul apparently saw no contradiction between justification by grace through faith and judgment according to works. God sees the truth about us and will not be mocked Gal. Paul was well aware of the coming judgment of God Rom. Moreover, the deeds that we do will receive their recompense from Christ himself: On the principle that "a person reaps what he [or she] sows," Paul can even say that the one who sows to the flesh will reap corruption from the flesh, while the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit Gal.

    The way that one lives in this world has eternal significance. How Paul understood the relationship between judgment according to works and justification by grace through faith will be treated below. James admonishes his readers that they should "so speak and so act as those who are to be judged by the law of liberty" Jas. He grounds this statement with the words, "for judgment will be without mercy to anyone who has shown no mercy" Jas. In general James' focus on hearing and doing Jas. The New Testament contains numerous other references to final judgment that do not require lengthy discussion here Acts This brief biblical survey is enough to show, however, that the significance of the earthly life for final judgment is a consistent biblical theme, from beginning to end.

    The Book of Concord includes "the three chief creeds," all of which speak of Christ coming as judge. From where he will come to judge the living and the dead" The Nicene- Constantinopolitan Creed expands the statement to say, "He is coming again in glory to judge the living and the dead. There will be no end to his kingdom" The creed attributed to St. Athanasius implies that Christ's judgment will assess and recompense human actions or works. At his coming all human beings will rise with their bodies and will give an account of their own deeds.

    Those who have done good things will enter into eternal life, and those who have done evil things into eternal fire" Luther's Small Catechism states that the Risen Christ "rules eternally," but his return as judge is not mentioned. Melanchthon's ample Article IV in the Apology implies that judgment will connect the earthly living of the righteous with their eschatological state. What one suffers and does in this life is "meritorious for other bodily and spiritual rewards, which are bestowed in this life and the life to come.

    And these rewards produce degrees of return, according to that passage in Paul [1 Cor. Tell us about what you are going to give up for this Lenten Year The Ascension occurred on the 40th day of Easter, a Thursday Pentecost Sunday is one of the most ancient feasts of the Church, celebrated early enough to be mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles Everything answered from when does lent end, ashes, giving something up, stations of the cross and blessed palms.

    The key to understanding the meaning of Lent is simple In France, the people feasted on foods that would be given up during the forty days of Lent. Meats, eggs, and milk were finished off in one day, giving the holiday its French title of 'Mardi Gras' which means Fat Tuesday The Resurrection of Jesus is the crowning truth of our faith in Christ, a faith believed and lived as the central truth by the first Christian community He is not here, for he has been raised just as he said. Choose a gift for someone special and celebrate the joy of Easter Truly, he is risen!

    The Hope of Eternal Life

    Jesus Christ has conquered sin and death. We know that God has the final word. And that word is love. Though it started out from a revelation that was made by Jesus to Saint Faustina, it is now an official feast in the Catholic Church. On Easter morning Pope Francis said God's announcement to his people always comes as a surprise, like the shock of the disciples who found During his Urbi et Orbi Easter blessing, Pope Francis said Jesus' death and resurrection provide hope to a world marred by conflict, The Easter Bunny is a symbol of Easter that is popular in western culture, especially with children.

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    It's a little awkward to ask, but we need your help. If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you. Behold, now is the acceptable time; behold, now is the day of salvation 2 Cor. Reflections for Lent and Easter: Ash Wednesday February 14, Palm Sunday March 25,