On Two Souls, Against the Manicheans (With Active Table of Contents)

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A Sermon to Catechumens Moral Treatises: Ten Sermons on the First Epistle of John Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament About the Author Augustine, the man with upturned eye, with pen in the left hand, and a burning heart in the right as he is usually represented , is a philosophical and theological genius of the first order, towering like a pyramid above his age, and looking down commandingly upon succeeding centuries.

He had a mind uncommonly fertile and deep, bold and soaring; and with it, what is better, a heart full of Christian love and humility. He stands of right by the side of the greatest philosophers of antiquity and of modern times. We meet him alike on the broad highways and the narrow footpaths, on the giddy Alpine heights and in the awful depths of speculation, wherever philosophical thinkers before him or after him have trod. As a theologian he is facile princeps, at least surpassed by no church father, schoolman, or reformer.

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As lord of the five realms of the World of Darkness his body is a composition of attributes of the demons of all five parts. Simplicius aptly called him the pentamorphe Puech, , p. The most important exponent of this tendency is Theodore bar Konai.

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The two procreators of man. The Greek form of the name Saklas is evidently to be kept apart. Sakla s is indeed the form of the name in Western Manichean and non-Manichean texts cf. The Coptic Kephalaia have Saklas Dict. A convincing explanation of the forms of the name is given by Schwartz, , p. She remains anonymous in the Coptic Manichean sources.

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In Iranian languages Parth. The main sources are listed in Puech, , p.


To be added are mainly Fehrest , ed. Demons in the Book of the Giants.

Encyclopædia Iranica

The names are either kept in their Aramaic form or replaced by Iranian legendary names or formally adapted to Iranian name types. On these names cf. In the western, i. Henning, II, p. Demons in magical texts. Henning, II, pp. Demons whose character is obscure: But the identity of this demon or heretic remains unclear. On the name cf. Names of groups of demons. Groups of demons can be distinguished according to their physical nature or their function in the cosmological myth.

The monstrous demons of the five worlds of Darkness where they permanently fought against each other before they started their attack on the World of Light cf. Many demons who were killed by the Living Spirit, the Mother of Life and their helpers, their bodies became the eight earths of this world and their skins the ten or eleven skies cf. Further demons were imprisoned in the earths, the skies and the atmosphere, and were watched over by watcher demons and kept in custody by the sons of the Living Spirit cf.

Those many demons who, although caught in the building of Macrocosm, are still free and active enough to vex humankind with bad weather, bodily diseases, evil dreams and the tortures in hells and have to be averted, if not by divine powers, by magic spells and careful behavior. Liber Scholiorum II, ed. Henning, I, pp. The Parthian word cydyg M , ed. But the word is ethically neutral and can also denote divine beings. The very general category of both divine and demonic powers is likely to go back to similar concepts of the New Testament Gr.

The secular, political meaning of the word is sometimes also preserved in Manichean texts Psalm-Book , p. This is also the widespread use of the term in Gnostic interpretation. In Manichean parlance the word is indirectly attested in Greek polemical works Acta Arkhelai , Epiphanius e. So there is sufficient reason to assume that Mani himself used this term.

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Henning, , I, p. It also covers those guardians who came down to earth to procreate the species of the giants. The word is used in orthodox Zoroastrian texts to denote heathen idols cf. The Manicheans enriched their demonological inventory by adopting the Zoroastrian dragon word MPers. The Manicheans adopted the word in its double meaning. They constitute, taken together, the spirituality of the body: The Manichean views on the celestial bodies were contradictory.

On the one hand, stars were light particles of the World Soul fixed to the skies Sundermann, , p. The Manicheans extended the negative view of the stars to the Zodiacal signs MPers. As an appellative name the word can also be used as an adjective. Unfortunately neither the name nor the function of these demons is quite clear.

The female demons, fettered to the skies and seduced by the Third Messenger, gave birth to abortions which fell on the earth and became demons and animals. This is an elaboration of Gen.

The Doctrine Of The Soul In Manichaeism And Augustine » Brill Online

They took part in the tyrannical rule and the mutual onslaughts of their procreators. They ultimately suffered punishment at the hands of the angels who put an end to the chaos of the pre-diluvian time.

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They were only half-demons. The rhetorical effectiveness of the reasoning, which Augustine intends to strengthen by quoting the very words of the Manichaeans, to expose the contradiction in the concept of the repentance of each of the two souls, significantly emphasises their ontological diversity. The radical dualism of Manichaean ontology whichwith the opposition of two homogeneous and compact substances structurally commands and determines the anthropological conception of the system, places in evidence the active role of the second principle, to which is attributed directly the constitution of the five powers.

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